In a real accelerator, the transmission from the source to the target is never 100 %. The fraction of beam particles lost has to be controlled carefully to achieve optimal transmission. The lost beam particles cause some activation of the accelerator components by nuclear reactions. Moreover, the surrounding material can be destroyed by the radiation, as well as by the heating due to the particles’energy loss. The important nuclear physics processes will produce secondary particles. To detect the shower of secondary particle a large variety of Beam Loss Monitors BLM exists.
The most common beam loss monitors.
Testing of ADS Proton LINAC.
Testing of HIRFL-RIBLL2
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